Volterra, on the top of a hill, is surrounded by clayey landscape dating back to Pliocene.
It had been chief of Etruscan towns, very powerful and big, in 5 and 6cent.B.C.with a population of 25.000.

Medieval Volterra raised nearby the Etruscan Acropolis, inside the walls still existing.
"Città di vento e di macigno" (town of wind and stone"), as Gabriele D'Annunzio wrote, was builted with gray stone between 12 and 13cent, when became free city, later controlled by Florence in 1361.

Its richness mainly coming from agriculture and mining, industry and trading.